Summer Session 2021

Courses run during four sessions from May 24 until August 20 unless noted otherwise. If you are currently in high school, be sure to view our recommended courses for high school students. Please email us with your questions and review our tuition and fees

Registration is now open

Please note: Courses are subject to change.


Summer I:
May 24 - July 2, 2021 
Summer II:
July 12 - August 20, 2021 
Summer III:
May 24 - August 20, 2021 
Summer VIII - 8 week:
May 24 - July 23, 2021 


Return to Main Menu

All summer term courses are offered in the asynchronous online format unless otherwise specified

Asynchronous – online course materials can be accessed and completed at any time within the parameters set by your professor. There’s no real-time interaction; students complete the work when their schedule allows keeping in mind due dates set by faculty.

Synchronous - online live class meeting on a specific day/time with the faculty (specific day/time are noted on the course).

Business

Accounting

  • ACC3304C-A Intermediate Accounting II
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
The second course in the Intermediate Accounting sequence. The central theme of the course is financial accounting and the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by which it is governed. The objective of the course is to allow students to develop a sophisticated comprehension of GAAP, its underlying theories, and corresponding practices, procedures, and techniques employed in their application. Intermediate Accounting II concentrates on student application to sources of economic resources (liabilities and equity). Prerequisite: ACC 3303.

Business

  • BUS2213C-B Business Statistics
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Provides an introduction to fundamental statistical principles and procedures. Topics include descriptive statistics, discrete and continuous probability distributions and sampling distributions, statistical inference and estimation, linear regression and correlation. Prerequisites: BUS1100 and MTH1003 (or course equivalent: MTH1016, 1115, or 1217). Fulfills Q in LS Core.
  • BUS2220C-A Operations Management
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
The course is designed to provide students majoring in business administration with an overview of the concepts, methodologies, and applications of operations management (OM). The focus of operations in the process of converting or transforming resources into products and services. The principal responsibilities of operations managers lie in making sound, cost-effective decisions that increase the productivity and competitiveness of both manufacturing and service organizations. The process of planning, implementing and monitoring the production allows operations managers to continuously improve in providing high quality goods and services at low cost thereby adding more value for the customer. Prerequisites: BUS 1100, BUS 2203 & BUS 2213. Fulfills X in LS Core.
  • BUS4402WC-A Strat Analysis + Dec Making - WI
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
BUS4402 is a capstone course that exposes students to issues that concern the firm as a whole. Through the use of “real-world” case studies and sophisticated practitioner journal articles, students will be called upon to grapple with such strategic issues as sizing up an organization’s standing in the marketplace, differentiating between winning and mediocre strategies, and spotting ways to improve a company’s strategy execution. In this course student teams will meet with the teaching team one hour per week to discuss their analysis of the assigned readings and cases. Prerequisite: BUS1100 and all required BUS2xxx courses. Fulfills X and W in LS Core.
  • BUS4402WC-B Strat Analysis + Dec Making - WI
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
  • Instructor: James Kimball
  • 07/12/2021-8/20/2021
BUS4402 is a capstone course that exposes students to issues that concern the firm as a whole. Through the use of “real-world” case studies and sophisticated practitioner journal articles, students will be called upon to grapple with such strategic issues as sizing up an organization’s standing in the marketplace, differentiating between winning and mediocre strategies, and spotting ways to improve a company’s strategy execution. In this course student teams will meet with the teaching team one hour per week to discuss their analysis of the assigned readings and cases. Prerequisite: BUS1100 and all required BUS2xxx courses. Fulfills X and W in LS Core.

Management

  • MGT3351C-A Human Resource Management
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This is a broad survey course providing a comprehensive overview of several human resource functions, including recruitment and selection, compensation, training, performance evaluation, labor and employee relations. Students will consider HRM topics as they relate to all employees with different roles and perspectives for supervisors and subordinates, and how these topics apply to creating strategic directions for an organization. Using an applied setting focus, instruction methods combine interactive lectures, experiential exercises, current events, case review, and external project analysis and presentation. Prerequisite: BUS 1100. Fulfills X in LS Core.

Marketing

  • MKT3303C-A Advertising and Promotion
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
The basic principles of advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, public relations, publicity, and personal selling, as well as other forms of promotion are studied. The course will examine the factors affecting promotional decisions as well as the development of effective marketing communication strategies. Topics include establishment of objectives, identifying target audiences, budgeting, formulation, design and testing of message, media selection, and analysis of effectiveness in the context of an integrated marketing plan and ethical considerations. Students will have an opportunity to apply their analytical and creative skills by developing actual TV, radio, and print ads as well as write press releases using real world, practical, and contemporary communication case studies.Prerequisite(s): BUS 2205.
  • MKT3400C-A Social Media Marketing
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Businesses are currently facing a fundamental change in the ways that consumers interact with brands and each other. Social media has connected consumers with family and friends while also giving them considerable power over marketers and brands. This course offers an overview of how marketing has changed due to the increasing prominence of social media as a digital marketing tool. The curriculum of this course is designed to equip students with the relevant knowledge, perspectives, and practical skills required to both develop and present an effective social media marketing strategy. Prerequisite: BUS2205.

Education and Social Policy

Criminology

  • CRM1000C-A Introduction to Criminology
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course explores crime, justice, and punishment. In this course, the causes of crime and the solutions and policies in place to deter or solve crime will be critically examined. We will also examine the social processes whereby crime is defined and detected, and offenders are apprehended and punished. The overall objective of the course is to examine crime and punishment within the context of the society and culture which surrounds it. These topics are connected to inequalities of race, class, and gender, which will be key concerns throughout this course. Coverage of crime and punishment in the popular media is also a central focus of this course. Required for majors. Social Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a SOSC requirement in LS Core.
  • CRM2900C-A Police Culture
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Police Culture is an introduction to the function and purpose of police operations. The course will examine the culture of American Policing today and include the study of police policy and procedure. Also included will be the study of organizational culture within law enforcement from a police officer’s perspective and the assessment of working environments within contemporary police departments. The effects of cultural diversity in law enforcement today will be examined in relation to traditional law enforcement models. Topics will include women in law enforcement, religion, employment rights and occupational attitudes in police work. Emphasis will also be on the growing problems in the Criminal Justice System as a result of societal changes in law enforcement and how it affects police management. Prerequisite: CRM1000.

Health Sciences

Health Sciences

  • HSC1123C-B Anatomy and Physiology II
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: On-Campus
  • Days/Week: T/W/TH - 9am-1:30pm
  • Summer Session 2
This course continues the human anatomy and physiology topics and includes the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. The laboratory is a required component that will provide an opportunity for the student to further develop and apply the practical skills necessary to comprehend the structure and function of the human body. Prerequisite: HSC1122.
  • HSC3103C-A Global Public Health
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Global public health is a study of the biological, socioeconomic and environmental contributors to health and disease in populations around the world. Students will investigate the determinants of health, how health status is measured, and will review the burden of disease, risk factors and approaches to global cooperation to address health problems within and between nations for successful interventions. Specific issues underlying strategies and organization for health care delivery and health services will be discussed and linked to community service projects that aim to develop social responsibility through civic engagement and humanitarian activities. Satisfies a Mathematics/Science distribution requirement.
  • HSC2300C-B Intro to Nutritional Sciences
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Nutrition, Diet and Health will introduce the student to the science of nutrition. The fundamentals of protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, and mineral requirements and metabolism will be explained as a basis for the study of the relationship between diet and health in both a personal and global perspective. The impact that human nutrition and industrial agriculture have on environmental quality, food resources and energy consumption will be explored. Nutrition, Diet and Health has a mandatory civic engagement component related to important public and environmental issues in human nutrition, health, and fitness that are considered in the course. Satisfies a Mathematics/Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a STEM requirement in LS Core.
  • SME1104C-B Intro-Phys Act,Fitness,Wellness
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course is a survey of the discipline of health and fitness, including knowledge derived from performing physical activity, studying about physical activity, and professional practice centered in physical activity. It includes an analysis of the importance of health and wellness in daily life, the relationship between physical activity and the discipline of kinesiology, and the general effects of physical activity experiences. The course surveys the general knowledge base of the Health Science discipline as reflected in the major sub disciplines and reviews selected concepts in each, showing how they contribute to our understanding of the nature and importance of physical activity. The students will learn about the fitness components of wellness; flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, body composition, nutrition, weight management, and cancer. Fitness and other positive life style habits that lead to better health, improved quality of life, and total well-being will be discussed. Students will be responsible for developing a self-paced fitness program that will be followed for the duration of the semester. In addition, the course introduces students to the general and specific characteristics of the health and wellness professions.Fulfills: STEM requirement in LS Core.
  • HSC3302C-B Introduction to Public Health
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Public health aims to understand the occurrence and causes of disease within populations with the goal of prevention and health promotion, through changes in individual behavior, control of infectious disease and environmental health factors, and social and political organization for health improvement. The aim will be to describe the patterns of selected diseases in populations, to explain the causation of disease at the cell/physiological to social levels, to predict disease occurrence and to control disease through prevention strategies aimed at individuals, communities and governments. Satisfies a Mathematics/Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a STEM requirement and X in LS Core.

Liberal Arts

Communication and Media

  • COM2801C-A Introduction to Communication
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Having a great idea is not enough; you have to be able to effectively communicate your idea to others. This course will examine principles of interpersonal, organizational, and community-based communication as a means of shaping how individuals respond to advocacy efforts. The critical skills discussed will help you both understand how people are influencing you, and how you can more successfully influence others. This course will prepare you to be a competent communicator in a variety of contexts. Fulfills SOSC in LS core.
  • COM3350WC-A Media Indus and Orgs - Writ Int
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course offers an in-depth exploration of media industries and organizations, specifically focusing on multinational media conglomerates with consideration of mid-sized and independent producers of media. We will examine everything from organizational structures and functions to why decisions are made and the implications of those decisions on the kinds of media texts that are produced and consumed. By using a critical media industry studies perspective, this course will also consider issues of industry lore and history, national contexts, globalization, political economy, and individual agency. The first ten weeks of the semester will be devoted to these broad topics, while the last five weeks of the semester focus on current media industry trends. Satisfies W and SOSC requirements in LS Core.
  • COM1020C-A Public Communication
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course focuses on the concepts and practices associated with effective public communication. A central aspect of this course entails the mastering of public speaking through the process of researching, preparing, and delivering presentations in a variety of formats (e.g., informative, persuasive, and impromptu). The classroom is a laboratory in which to develop the skills needed for effective public communication. In addition, students will also analyze public speaking events as a means of developing a critical understanding of the public communication process. No prerequisite.
  • COM2010WC-A Research Inquiry
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course is offered to help students examine both quantitative and qualitative methodologies utilized by researchers in Communication. Students will be introduced to the concepts of research design, sampling, measurement, data collection, behavioral observation, statistical analysis and ethics. The difference between implications of humanistic/interpretive research and positivistic/objective research will be emphasized. Communications students only. Satisfies the writing intensive requirement in LS Core.

English

  • ENG1050C-B Intro to College Writing
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Introduction to the rhetorical practices of college-level writing. Emphasizes the foundations of academic discourse, with attention to language, purpose, and context. Students will read and analyze texts to prepare them to write for different audiences. Will include library instruction, research, and documentation. Fulfills first year writing requirement in LS Core. Does not count toward English major or minor.
  • ENG2150C-A Introduction to Creative Writing
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Introduces the main genres of creative writing, including poetry, memoir, and fiction. In addition to producing their own creative forms such as poems, song lyrics, literary memoir, and short stories, students will study the works of contemporary and canonical authors in each genre. Classwork includes the workshopping of both short and longer projects and will culminate in a portfolio of revised work. Fulfills an AL requirement in LS Core.
  • ENG2050C-A Introduction to Literary Studies
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course introduces students to such traditional literary genres as fiction, poetry, and drama, as well as newer and emerging forms such as the graphic novel, creative non-fiction, digital storytelling, and film. Emphasis is given to teaching students to read closely and to write analytically. The course also familiarizes students with a variety of interpretive strategies. Students leave the course recognizing the value of close reading and self-conscious interpretation. Satisfies a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills AL in LS Core.

History

  • HIS1119C-B European Exper: Antiquity to Ref
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
The European Experience: Antiquity to the Reformation This course examines the major events and developments in European history from ancient civilizations through the Renaissance and Reformation, with particular emphasis upon the political context, the causes and implications of social and economic change, and cultural evolution. This course is not open to students who have received credit for World Civilization I. Satisfies a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills H in LS Core.
  • HIS1106C-B U.S. History I
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
U.S. History I: From Pre-Contact through the Civil War and Reconstruction This course offers an introduction to American history from the beginning of European expansion through the Civil War and Reconstruction. Drawing upon the methods and insights of social, political, and cultural history, the class lectures and discussions will explore a range of topics, including: the colonial encounter, labor systems, racial formation, the movement for independence and the formation of the American Republic, religion and reform movements, the democratic and market Revolutions, the transformation of gender roles, and the causes and consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Satisfies a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills H in LS Core.
  • HIS1106C-A U.S. History I - SECTION FULL
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
U.S. History I: From Pre-Contact through the Civil War and Reconstruction This course offers an introduction to American history from the beginning of European expansion through the Civil War and Reconstruction. Drawing upon the methods and insights of social, political, and cultural history, the class lectures and discussions will explore a range of topics, including: the colonial encounter, labor systems, racial formation, the movement for independence and the formation of the American Republic, religion and reform movements, the democratic and market Revolutions, the transformation of gender roles, and the causes and consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Satisfies a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills H in LS Core.

Philosophy

  • PHL2060C-A Biomedical Ethics
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
A critical examination of moral issues in medicine and bioethics. Topics will be selected from among the following: the physician relationship; informed consent; research ethics; issues at the end of life including euthanasia and physician assisted suicide; the allocation of scarce medical resources; race and gender in medicine; reproductive and genetic control, etc. Ethical theories and principles will be introduced to help analyze the chosen issues. Prerequisite: PHL 1000. Satisfies a second institutional requirement in Philosophy if needed or a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills E in LS Core.
  • PHL2070C-A Environmental Ethics
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Environmental Ethics concerns humanity’s relationship with nature. In addition to questions about our moral obligations to other humans, animals, plants, ecosystems, and future generations, the course will also look at recent work on the Land Ethic, Ecofascism, Deep Ecology, Global Ecocentrism, Ecofeminism, Social Ecology, and Sustainability. We will begin with a brief look at some background texts before turning to philosophical analysis of such contemporary issues as climate change, renewable energy, pollution, and sustainability. Prerequisite: a 1000-level philosophy course. Satisfies a second institutional requirement in Philosophy if needed or a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills E in LS Core.
  • PHL1000C-B Introduction to Philosophy
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
A first course in philosophy focusing on classic questions that have stirred the perennial human quest for wisdom. We will explore such questions as: Are humans free or determined? How do the mind and body interact? Is ethics just relative to each person or society? Should there be any limits to the political freedom of citizens? Does God exist? The course will introduce students to the methods and culture of philosophy: sympathetic understanding, critical analysis, fair argumentation, and a persistent desire to know the truth whatever it is. The focus and questions covered will be determined by each instructor. Fulfills PHL in LS Core.

Religious and Theological Studies

  • RTS1010C-A World Religions
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course is an introduction to a variety of the world’s religious traditions, such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Indigenous Traditions, Christianity, Islam, and Taoism. We examine origins, beliefs, practices, sacred texts, and historical and cultural aspects. Special attention will be given to Christianity and Catholicism. We will also examine St. Augustine’s life and ideas using various sources. Satisfies the first institutional requirement in religious and theological studies. Fulfills RTS in LS Core.

Psychology

  • PSY1000C-B Introduction to Psychology
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Provides a general overview of the wide-ranging field of psychology. Students will explore major concepts and issues in the study of human thinking, feeling, and acting. These include biological foundations of behavior and experience, how people learn and develop, how individuals perceive the world, individual differences in behavior, social influence and social relations, the difference between normative and non-normative behavior, and approaches to therapy. This course is a prerequisite for all other courses in psychology. Satisfies a Social Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a SOSC requirement in LS core.
  • PSY2310C-A Lifespan Development Psychology
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Explores the development of a typical human being from conception to death. Investigates patterns of change in biology, cognition, personality, social interaction, and relationships that take place throughout the lifespan. Considers several conceptual issues including progression and regression, health and illness, normality and abnormality. Note that students who have already received credit for PSY2300 cannot receive credit for PSY2310. Fulfills a social science requirement in LS Core.
  • PSY2400C-A Personality
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Introduces classical and contemporary thinking on the concept of ‘personality’. Explores the contributions of several important theoretical frameworks in personality theory including psychoanalysis, phenomenology, trait theory, and learning. Prerequisite: PSY 1000. Satisfies a Social Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a SOSC requirement in LS Core.
  • PSY2470C-A The Psychology of Trauma
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
Explores the psychology of trauma and human resilience. This course explores the range of posttraumatic reactions to a variety of situations as they affect cognitive, emotional, somatic and interpersonal aspects of functioning. Students will be exposed to an overview of the etiology of and prevailing theories about PTSD. Factors contributing to the resilience to trauma as well as societal, cultural, and historical influences on views of trauma will also be discussed.Prerequisite(s): PSY 1000.

Social Justice

  • SOJ1000C-A Introduction to Social Justice (Theory & Practice)
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
The study of social justice involves questions of power, discrimination and institutionalized violence, deprivation and oppression. This course surveys major philosophical, theological, sociological, cultural, feminist, environmental and political theories of justice. In addition to these theoretical explorations, the course also focuses on narratives of injustice-how people have responded to liberate themselves and how those in power have endeavored to keep their privileged position. As the foundational course for the Social Justice minor and major, this interdisciplinary course exposes students to both historical and contemporary instances of injustice and the various responses people have taken to rectify them, as well as to the practical, organizational aspects of Social Justice work. As an experiential learning course, students will be engaged in a collective volunteering project that will connect the class to Merrimack College’s immediate context.Fulfills: D, E and X in LS Core.

Sociology

  • SOC1400C-A Stress: A Social Psychological Perspective
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course will analyze the causes, effects, and untapped possibilities of getting better at stress, individually and collectively. As we draw on and fuse together insights from sociology, psychology, and health science, we will explore several key questions:· What in our society – in our cultural beliefs/values, social norms, social practices, and social structures – has made the U.S. the most anxious, depressed, and distressed industrialized nation in the world?· How does immense wealth inequality generate a toxic social environment that affects and infects our hearts, minds, and relationships?· What can we do to hone our ability, as individuals and as a society, to more resourcefully, resiliently, and joyfully meet life’s challenges?· How can we connect these timely issues to your questions and beliefs, your challenges and dreams?

Visual and Performing Arts

  • FAA1320C-B History of Rock and Roll
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
This course covers the history of rock music in Western culture, focusing mainly on British and American contributions to the style. It begins with an overview of the musics that were predecessors of rock, including early blues, jazz and rhythm and blues, continues through the birth of rock ‘n’ roll in the 1950, and traces developments throughout the second half of the 20th century and beyond, culminating in a review of current trends. Satisfies a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills AL and X in LS Core.

Women’s and Gender Studies

  • WGS2010C-A Introduction to Ethnic Studies
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
The main objective of this course is to introduce students to the academic field of Ethnic Studies, and the interdisciplinary questions it poses about the way that race, ethnicity and racism structure our world. Our focus is within a framework analyzing a range of themes and topics including the intersections of race, class, gender and sexuality; issues of power and privilege; immigration; popular culture and representation. The experiences of various communities of color will be explored including: African Americans, Asian Americans, Chicanos, Latinas, Native Americans and others. This course will also introduce major debates and issues facing Ethnic Studies in the 21st century such as immigration rights, Diaspora and globalization. A variety of mediums will be used in the course including historical and theoretical texts, newspaper articles, online postings, film and cultural analysis. Satisfies a Social Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a SOSC and D in LS Core.
  • WGS3300C-B US Women’s History
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
An examination of the history of women in America. It will include history prior to colonization, beyond and to the present. A look at women’s roles in US Society and the intersection of class, culture and ethnicity in shaping women’s historical experiences across time. The course will examine the transformations and continuities in women’s lives as well as the political, social, economic and cultural factors that inspired, infused or inhibited women’s changing roles. This class also explores the ways in which race, class and ethnicity have operated to unite and divide disparate groups of women. Satisfies a Humanities distribution requirement. Fulfills H and D in LS Core.

Science and Engineering

Biology

  • BIO1106C-A Human Biology
  • 4 Credit(s)
  • Format: Online - Asynchronous
  • Summer Session 2
An introduction to the structure and function of human body at the level of cells, tissues organs and organ systems. A special emphasis is placed on the functions of the nervous and endocrine systems and their role in homeostasis and the integration and regulation of the functions of the other tissues and organs. The course will also consider molecular, Mendelian and population genetics. This course is designed primarily for students who intend to major or are majoring in psychology. Prerequisite: none. Not open to BIO/HSC majors. Satisfies a Mathematics/Science distribution requirement. Fulfills a STEM requirement in LS Core.